Heart and blood

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Your heart is a wonderful organ that works during every minute of your life. You can help it to work long and well. You can strengthen it. Protect it from diseases by exercises and regular regimen.

Our pulse is about 70 beats per minute. After heavy exercises the heart works faster and then the pulse will be faster too, perhaps 100 beats .After a minute or two the pulse will be normal again.
About 5 liters of blood fill our arteries, veins and capillaries. Arteries carry the blood from the heart. Veins carry the blood to the heart. Blood has red blood cells , white blood cells and plasma.
Doctors take blood pressure, listen to the heart, take blood tests and take cardiogram of the patient’s heart. The blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arterial wall. The blood pressure can be normal, high and low. The normal BP is between 110-140 (the systolic pressure ) , over 70-90 (the diastolic pressure).
When you check the patient’s BP you must ask his (her) age .If a person of 20 has a BP of 140-150 it is dangerous, and the nurse must immediately take care of that patient. But if the same BP has a person of 50 it is not dangerous.
If a person has hypertension he may often complain of headache, nose bleedings and cardiac contraction . The doctor prescribes him hypertensive drugs. High BP often frightens the patient. The nurse must calm him. Hypertensive patients must not work hard. Hypotension or low BP is caused by different conditions. Anemia may be a cause of hypotension. Great fatigue also may cause hypotension. In all cases it is a very serious disease and the nurses always must be attentively dealing with these patients.

Yesterday the students of our group came to the Institute to listen to a lecture on muscles. the lecture was attended by all of us. The lecture was by all of us. The lecture was delivered by Prof. Smirnov. To listen to it was very interesting. In his lecture Prof. Smirnov said that the body was composed of about 600 skeletal muscles. Prof. Smirnov was the first to tell us about the anatomical terms.
The names of all the muscles in the body and all other anatomical terms were established at three Congresses in Based, Jena and Paris. In 1895 the Basel Nomina Anatomica was introduced; in 1935 it was greatly changed at the Congress of Anatomists in Jena. But the anatomical 9 terms which very established at that Congress were not used in the USSR. In 1995 the IV International Federal Congress of Anatomists in Paris established new anatomical terms, the so-called Paris Nomina Anatomica.
The students learned that in the adult 35%-40% of the body weight was formed by the muscles. According to the basic parts of the skeleton all the muscles were divided into the muscles of the trunk, head and exterminations.
When prof. Smirnov spoke about the form of the muscles he said that all the muscles were divided into three basic groups: long, short and wide muscles. the muscles lay on the trunk. The walls of the body cavities were formed by wide muscles.
Some muscles were called according to the structure of their fibers, for example radiated muscles; others according to the uses, for example extensors or according to their direction, for example oblique.
When prof. Smirnov spoke about the structure of the muscles he said that the muscles were formed by a mass of muscle cells. The muscle fibers were connected together by connective tissue. The blood vessels and the nerves could be found in the muscles.

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